“Mirror, Mira” on the Car’s IVI Screen: Two Different Standards?

You might be hearing about a new technology called MirrorLink that mimics your smartphone’s screen on the larger nav screen in your “connected car”. Or, you might be following the news on Miracast, a more open standard now baked into Android that offers Apple AirPlay-like features to stream smartphone content to devices like connected TVs.

You’d be forgiven if you think the two similarly-named standards are trying to accomplish the same thing. I didn’t understand it either, so I did some digging. Here’s what I found out.

The Smart, Connected Car
When I attended the Paris Auto Show last Fall specifically to investigate in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) trends for the Barr Group under contract to Intel, I got spun up “right quick” on all manner of IVI. From BMW’s iDrive to Chevrolet’s MyLink, the connected car is here. In fact, it’s one of the biggest trends spotted at last week’s 2013 CES in Las Vegas. MirrorLink is being designed into lots of new cars.

BMW's iDrive IVI uses a native system and doesn't rely on smartphone mirroring.

BMW’s iDrive IVI uses a native system and doesn’t rely on smartphone mirroring. (Courtesy of BMW.)

The biggest question faced by every auto manufacturer is this: in-car native system, or rely on the apps in one’s smartphone? Ford’s industry breakthrough MyFord Touch with SYNC by Microsoft is native and based upon Microsoft Auto Platform (now called Windows Embedded Automotive 7). Elsewhere, premium brands like BMW, Lexus and Cadillac have designed self-contained systems from the ground up. Some, like BMW, include in-car cellular modems. Others rely on the smartphone only for music and Internet access, but that’s it.

2013 Chevrolet MyLink IVI uses MirrorLink with smartphone apps

2013 Chevrolet MyLink IVI uses MirrorLink with smartphone apps. (Courtesy of Chevrolet.)

Still others, like Toyota and Chevrolet use a technology called MirrorLink to “mirror” the smartphone’s screen onto the car’s larger IVI. For all apps that make sense to be viewed on the IVI, the system will display them — usually identically to what the user sees on the smartphone (subject to safety and distraction caveats).

MirrorLink is now a trademarked standard owned by the Car Connectivity Consortium that’s designed specifically for cars and smartphones. That means the standard worries about driver distractions, apps that make sense for drivers (such as Google Maps) and those that don’t (such as a panoramic camera stitching application). Apps have to be qualified for use with MirrorLink.

As well, MirrorLink replaces the phone’s touch I/O with in-car I/O such as steering wheel controls, console joysticks, or the IVI head unit’s touchscreen or bezel buttons. Equally as important, audio input from microphones is routed from the car to the phone, while output uses the car’s speakers. The car’s antennae for radio and GPS will be given preference over the phone’s, improving the signal reception.  The protocols between smartphone and car also take input from the vehicle’s CANbus, including speed. This means that you can check your email when parked, but not while driving. A great resource for how it works and what the future holds is here.

MirrorLink started as a Nokia idea that was intended for smartphone-to-car connectivity. Now at version 1.1, it’s a client-server architecture where the IVI head unit is the USB host.  It uses industry-standard protocols such as Internet Protocol (IP), USB, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth (BT HFP for telephony, BT A2DP for media), RTP, and UPnP. Recent additions use The Trusted Computing Group concepts of device attestation protocols with SKSD/PKSD keys via authentication. The actual screen sharing uses the VNC protocol.

MirrorLink and Trusted Computing Group authentication process for trusted content.

MirrorLink and Trusted Computing Group authentication process for trusted content. (Courtesy of Car Connectivity Consortium.)

What MirrorLink doesn’t yet support is video streaming, since drivers watching video is a no-no is cars (tell that to the Japanese who I’ve seen with TVs mounted in their cars!).

Android and Miracast
Miracast, on the other hand, is all about streaming. It’s a Wi-Fi Alliance spec recently demoed at CES 2013 that’s designed to stream video and photos from smartphones, tablets, and future embedded devices. Like Apple’s AirPlay, it moves stuff from a small screen onto a big TV screen. It’s based upon Wi-Fi’s not-new-but-rarely-used Wi-Fi Direct standard (WiDi 3.5) that avoids routers to establish peer-to-peer connectivity.

The Wi-Fi Alliance Miracast standard streams video from small to large screens, as shown in this excerpt from a YouTube video. (Courtesy of YouTube and Wi-Fi Alliance.)

The Wi-Fi Alliance Miracast standard streams video from small to large screens, as shown in this excerpt from a YouTube video. (Courtesy of YouTube and Wi-Fi Alliance.)

Miracast supports 1080p HD video, 5.1 surround, and CPUs from nVidia, TI, Qualcomm, Marvell and others have announced plans to support it. Built into the spec is the ability to stream DRM and HDCP protected content using already established HDMI and DisplayPort style copy protection schemes. I guess they figure if you’ve got the rights to play it on your phone, might as well play it on your TV too.

Last Fall, Google updated Android Jelly Bean to 4.2 and included Miracast as part of the update, and I’m thrilled that my Nexus 7 tablet can now, in theory, stream content to my Samsung Smart TV. As Android proliferates throughout the embedded market, I can envision commercial applications where a user might do more than stream a video to another embedded device. Sharing the entire smartphone’s screen can be useful for PowerPoint presentations or demoing just about any Android app in existence. If it’s on the phone’s screen, it can get mirrored via Wi-Fi to another screen.

Will MirrorLink and Miracast Converge?
I doubt the two standards will merge. MirrorLink is exclusively aimed at IVI systems in cars, and the closely curated standard is intended to vet applications to assure safe operation in a vehicle. Miracast is similar in that it mirrors a smartphone’s screen, but there are no limitations on moving between screens, so Miracast is clearly the superset standard to a broader market.

Ironically, as the Car Connectivity Consortium looks to release MirrorLink Version 2.0, they’re examining Miracast as a way to provide an “alternative video link” for streaming H.264 1080p@30 FPS into the car cabin.

Why? For passenger entertainment. Think about minivans (shudder) and Suburbans loaded with kids.

Tizen OS for Smartphones – Intel’s Biggest Bet Yet

Tizen HTML5 from Intel and Linux Foundation to be used by Samsung handsets in 2013 mobile.

Figure 1: Intel and the Linux Foundation collaborated on Tizen, an open source HTML5-based platform for smartphones, IVI, and other embedded devices.

[Update on 27 February 2013: At the recent 2013 Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Samsung demoed a development handset running Tizen. CNET editor Luke Westaway posted a video review of the device which showed snappy performance, Android-like features, but felt that the early version was "a bit rough around the edges". Still, to see Tizen running on actual consumer hardware gives it cred.  A larger review by CNET's Roger Cheng can be found here: http://cnet.co/15R8xs3 ]

[8 Jan 2013 Update: Added "Disclosure" below and fixed some typos.]

Disclosure: As of 8 Jan 2013, I became a paid blogger for Intel’s ‘Roving Reporter’ embedded Intelligent Systems Alliance (edc.intel.com). But my opinion here is my own, and I call it like I see it.

Samsung hedges Apple, Google bets with Intel’s HTML5-based Tizen

Just when you thought the smartphone OS market was down to a choice between iOS and Android, Intel-backed Tizen jumps into the fray (Figure 1).  Tizen is Intel’s next kick at the can for mobile, and it’s joining several OS wannabes:  Microsoft Windows Phone 8, RIM Blackberry’s whatever-they’re-going-to-announce on 31 January 2013, and eventually Ubuntu phone platform.

Figure 2: On 3 January 2013 Ubuntu announced a plan to offer a smartphone OS. Key feature: use the phone as a computing platform and even drive a desktop monitor.

Samsung  Prepares to “Date” Other Partners

Samsung Electronics announced on 3 January that it will start selling smartphones sometime this year using Tizen as the OS platform. Samsung’s spokesperson didn’t elaborate on timing or models, but said in an emailed statement ”We plan to release new, competitive Tizen devices…and keep expanding the lineup.”

Tizen is the third incarnation of Intel’s attempts at building an embedded ecosystem which included MeeGo and Moblin. Tizen, in collaboration with The Linux Foundation, was announced mid-2011 and has been quietly gestating in the background and is now on Release 2.0. One of the largest supporters of Tizen is Samsung, so the recent announcement is no surprise.

Samsung no doubt seeks a back-up plan as Google’s Android OS has flown past Apple’s iOS as the predominant operating system for mobile devices  plus tablets (75%; Figure 3).

Figure 3: Android is now the predominant smartphone OS in 2012, according to IDC. (Source: IDC; http://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS23818212 ).

As Samsung is now the world’s largest smartphone supplier (Figure 4), the company might be following a play from Apple in seeking to control more of its own destiny through Tizen.

Figure 4: IC Insights – and most other analyst firms – rank Samsung as the world’s largest smartphone supplier. This data is from 28 November 2012.(Source: IC Insights; http://www.icinsights.com/news/bulletins/Samsung-And-Apple-Set-To-Dominate-2012-Smartphone-Market/)

And with Samsung and Apple’s patent dispute nastiness, along with rumblings over whether Samsung may or may not continue to supply processors for iPhones, Tizen represents one more way for Samsung to control their own destiny separate from Google and Apple.

Intel’s Mobile Imperative Needs HTML5

Intel, on the other hand, desperately needs more wins in the mobile space.  Last year I blogged how the company gained some traction by announcing several Atom (Medfield) SoC-based handset wins,  but the company has gone on record stating their real goal is to be inside mobile devices from Apple, Samsung or both. In fact, it’s a bet-the-farm play for Intel and it most likely pushed Intel CEO Paul Otellini into his future retirement plans.

The general embedded market is closely following what happens in mobile, adopting low-power ARM SoCs and Atom CPUs, using wireless Wi-Fi and NFC radios for M2M nodes, and deploying Android for both headed and headless systems such as POS and digital signage. If Tizen moves the needle in smartphones for Samsung, chances are it’ll be used by other players. With HTML5, it will be straightforward to port applications and data across hardware platforms – a goal that Intel’s EVP Renee James  touted at 2012′s Intel Developers Forum (Figure 5).

Figure 5: Intel’s Renee James is betting on HTML5 in Tizen to kickstart transparent computing. (Image taken by author at IDF 2012.)

 

Tizen is based upon HTML5 with plans to achieve the old Java “write once, run anywhere” promise.   For Intel, the Tizen SDK and API means that applications written for the most popular mobile processors – such as Qualcomm’s Snapdragon or nVidia’s Tegra 3 – could easily run on Intel processors. In fact, at IDF Intel posited a demo of a user’s application running first on a home PC, then a smart phone, then a connected in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) system, and then finally on an office platform. Intel’s Renee James explained that it matters not what underlying hardware runs the application – HTML5 allows seamless migration across any and all devices.

Tizen Stakes for Intel and Samsung

This pretty much sums up the Tizen vision, both for Intel and for Samsung. Tizen means freedom, as it abstracts the hardware from any application.

If successful, Tizen opens up processor sockets to Intel as mobile vendors swap CPUs. Tizen also allows Samsung to choose any processor, while relying on open source and open standards-based code supported by The Linux Foundation.