Design Resources: USB 3.1 and Type-C

By: Chris A. Ciufo, Editor, Embedded Systems Engineering

An up-to-date quick reference list for engineers designing with Type-C.

USB 3.1 and its new Type-C connector are likely in your design near-future. USB 3.1 and the Type-C connector run at up to 10 Gbps, and Type-C is the USB-IF’s “does everything” connector that can be inserted either way (and never is upside down). The Type-C connector also delivers USB 3.1 speeds plus other gigabit protocols simultaneously, including DisplayPort, HDMI, Thunderbolt, PCI Express and more.

Also new or updated are the Battery Charging (BC) and Power Delivery (PD) specifications that provide up to 100W of charge capability in an effort to eliminate the need for a drawer full of incompatible wall warts.

If you’ve got USB 3.1 “SuperSpeed+” or the Type-C connector in your future, here’s a recent list of design resources, articles and websites that can help get you up to speed.

Start Here: The USB Interface Forum governs all of these specs, with lots of input from industry partners like Intel and Microsoft. USB 3.1 (it’s actually Gen 2), Type-C, and PD information is available via the USB-IF and it’s the best place to go for the actual details (note the hotlinks). Even if you don’t read them now, you know you’re going to need to read them eventually.

“Developer Days” The USB-IF presented this two-day seminar in Taipei last November 2015. I’ve recently discovered the treasure trove of preso’s located here (Figure 1). The “USB Type-C Specification Overview” is the most comprehensive I’ve seen lately.

Figure 1: USB-IF held a “Developer Days” forum in Taipei November 2015. These PPT’s are a great place to start your USB 3.1/Type-C education. (Image courtesy: USB-IF.org.)

Figure 1: USB-IF held a “Developer Days” forum in Taipei November 2015. These PPT’s are a great place to start your USB 3.1/Type-C education. (Image courtesy: USB-IF.org.)

What is Type-C? Another decent 1,000-foot view is my first article on Type-C: “Top 3 Essential Technologies for Ultra-mobile, Portable Embedded Systems.” Although the article covers other technologies, it compares Type-C against the other USB connectors and introduces designers to the USB-IF’s Battery Charging (BC) and Power Delivery (PD) specifications.

What is USB? To go further back to basics, “3 Things You Need to Know about USB Switches” starts at USB 1.1 and brings designers up to USB 3.0 SuperSpeed (5 Gbps). While the article is about switches, it also reminds readers that at USB 3.0 (and 3.1) speeds, signal integrity can’t be ignored.

USB Plus What Else? The article “USB Type-C is Coming…” overlays the aforementioned information with Type-C’s sideband capabilities that can transmit HDMI, DVI, Thunderbolt and more. Here, the emphasis is on pins, lines, and signal integrity considerations.

More Power, Scotty! Type-C’s 100W Power Delivery sources energy in either direction, depending upon the enumeration sequence between host and target. Components are needed to handle this logic, and the best source of info is from the IC and IP companies. A recent Q&A we did with IP provider Synopsys “Power Where It’s Needed…” goes behind the scenes a bit, while TI’s E2E Community has a running commentary on all things PD. The latter is a must-visit stop for embedded designers.

Finally, active cables are the future as Type-C interfaces to all manner of legacy interfaces (including USB 2.0/3.0). At last year’s IDF 2015, Cypress showed off dongles that converted between specs. Since then, the company has taken the lead in this emerging area and they’re the first place to go to learn about conversions and dongles (Figure 2).

Figure 2: In the Cypress booth at IDF 2015, the company and its partners showed off active cables and dongles. Here, Type-C (white) converts to Ethernet, HDMI, VGA, and one more I don’t recognize. (Photo by Chris A. Ciufo, 2015.)

Figure 2: In the Cypress booth at IDF 2015, the company and its partners showed off active cables and dongles. Here, Type-C (white) converts to Ethernet, HDMI, VGA, and one more I don’t recognize. (Photo by Chris A. Ciufo, 2015.)

Evolving Future: Although USB 3.1 and the Type-C connector are solid and not changing much, IC companies are introducing more highly integrated solutions for the BC, PD and USB 3.1 specifications plus sideband logic. For example, Intel’s Thunderbolt 3 uses Type-C and runs up to 40 Gbps, suggesting that Type-C has substantial headroom and more change is coming. My point: expect to keep your USB 3.1 and Type-C education up-to-date.

Intel Changes Course–And What a Change!

By Chris A. Ciufo, Editor, Embedded Intel Solutions

5 bullets explain Intel’s recent drastic course correction.

Intel CEO Brian Krzanich (Photo by author, IDF 2015.)

Intel CEO Brian Krzanich (Photo by author, IDF 2015.)

I recently opined on the amazing technology gifts Intel has given the embedded industry as the company approaches its 50th anniversary. Yet a few weeks later, the company released downward financials and announced layoffs, restructurings, executive changes and new strategies. Here are five key points from the recent news-storm of (mostly) negative coverage.

1. Layoffs.

Within days of the poor financial news, Intel CEO Brian Krzanich (“BK”) announced that 12,000 loyal employees would have to go. As the event unfolded over a few days, the pain was felt throughout Intel: from the Oregon facility where its IoT Intelligent Gateway strategy resides, to its design facilities in Israel and Ireland, to older fabs in places like New Mexico. Friends of mine at Intel have either been let go or are afraid for their jobs. This is the part about tech—and it’s not limited to Intel, mind you—that I hate the most. Sometimes it feels like a sweatshop where workers are treated poorly. (Check out the recent story concerning BiTMICRO Networks, which really did treat its workers poorly.)

2. Atom family: on its way out. 

This story broke late on the Friday night after the financial news—it was almost as if the company hadn’t planned on talking about it so quickly. But the bottom line is that the Atom never achieved all the goals Intel set out for it: lower price, lower power and a spot in handheld. Of course, much is written about Intel’s failure to wrest more than a token slice out of ARM’s hegemony in mobile. (BTW: that term “hegemony” used to be applied to Intel’s dominance in PCs. Sigh.) Details are still scant, but the current Atom Bay Trail architecture works very nicely, and I love my Atom-based Win8.1 Asus 2:1 with it. But the next Atom iteration (Apollo Lake) looks like the end of the line. Versions of Atom may live on under other names like Celeron and Pentium (though some of these may also be Haswell or Skylake versions).

3. New pillars announced.

Intel used to use the term “pillars” for its technology areas, and BK has gone to great lengths to list the new ones as: Data Center (aka: Xeon); Memory (aka: Flash SSDs and the Optane, 3D XPoint Intel/Micro joint venture); FPGAs (aka: Altera, eventually applied to Xeon co-accelerators); IoT (aka: what Intel used to call embedded); and 5G (a modem technology the company doesn’t really have yet). Mash-ups of these pillars include some of the use cases Intel is showing off today, such as wearables, medical, drones (apparently a personal favorite of BK), RealSense camera, and smart automobiles including self-driving cars. (Disclosure: I contracted to Intel in 2013 pertaining to the automotive market.)

 Intel’s new pillars, according to CEO Brian Krzanich. 5G modems are included in “Connectivity.” Not shown is “Moore’s Law,” which Intel must continue to push to be competitive.

Intel’s new pillars, according to CEO Brian Krzanich. 5G modems are included in “Connectivity.” Not shown is “Moore’s Law,” which Intel must continue to push to be competitive.

4. Tick-tock goodbye.

For many years, Intel has set the benchmark for process technology and made damn sure Moore’s Law was followed. The company’s cadence of new architecture (Tock) followed by process shrink (Tick) predictably streamed products that found their way into PCs, laptops, the data center (now “cloud” and soon “fog”). But as Intel approached 22nm, it got harder and harder to keep up the pace as CMOS channel dimensions approached Angstroms (inter-atomic distances). The company has now officially retired Tick-Tock in favor of a three-step process of Architecture, Process, and Process tuning. This is in fact where the company is today as the Core series evolved from 4th-gen (Haswell) to 5th-gen (Broadwell—a sort-of interim step) to the recent 6th-gen (Skylake). Skylake is officially a “Tock,” but if you work backwards, it’s kind of a fine-tuned process improvement with new features such as really good graphics, although AnandTech and others lauded Broadwell’s graphics. The next product—Kaby Lake (just “leaked” last week, go figure)—looks to be another process tweak. Now-public specs point to even better graphics, if the data can be believed.

Intel is arguably the industry’s largest software developer, and second only to Google when it comes to Android. (Photo by author, IDF 2015.)

Intel is arguably the industry’s largest software developer, and second only to Google when it comes to Android. (Photo by author, IDF 2015.)

5. Embedded, MCUs, and Value-Add.

This last bullet is my prediction of how Intel is going to climb back out of the rut. Over the years the company mimicked AMD and nearly singularly focused on selling x86 CPUs and variants (though it worked tirelessly on software like PCIe, WiDi, Android, USB Type-C and much more). It jettisoned value-add MCUs like the then-popular 80196 16-bitter with A/D and 8751EPROM-based MCU—conceding all of these products to companies like Renesas (Hitachi), Microchip (PIC series), and Freescale (ARM and Power-based MCUs, originally for automotive). Yet Intel can combine scads of its technology—including modems, WiFi (think: Centrino), PCIe, and USB)—into intelligent peripherals for IoT end nodes. Moreover, the company’s software arsenal even beats IBM (I’ll wager) and Intel can apply the x86 code base and tool set to dozens of new products. Or, they could just buy Microchip or Renesas or Cypress.

It pains me to see Intel layoff people, retrench, and appear to fumble around. I actually do think it is shot-gunning things just a bit right now, and officially giving up on developing low-power products for smartphones. Yet they’ll need low power for IoT nodes, too, and I don’t know that Quark and Curie are going to cut it. Still: I have faith. BK is hell-fire-brimstone motivated, and the company is anything but stupid. Time to pick a few paths and stay the course.

AMD on a Design Win Roll: GE and Samsung, Recent Examples

AMD is announcing several design wins per week as second-gen APUs show promise.

Note: AMD is a sponsor of this blog.

I follow many companies on Twitter, but lately it’s AMD that’s tweeting the loudest with weekly design wins. The company’s APUs—accelerated processing units—seem to be gaining traction in systems where PC functionality with game-like  graphics is critical. Core to both of these—pun intended!—is the x86 ISA with its PC compatibility and rich software ecosystem.

Here’s a look at two of AMD’s recent design wins, one for an R-Series and the other for the all-in-one G-Series APU.

Samsung’s “set-back box” adds high-res graphics and PC functions to their digital signage displays. (Courtesy: Samsung.)

Samsung’s “set-back box” adds high-res graphics and PC functions to their digital signage displays. (Courtesy: Samsung.)

Samsung Digital Signs on to AMD

In April Samsung and AMD announced that AMD’s second-gen embedded R-Series APU, previously codenamed “Bald Eagle” is powering Samsung’s latest set-back box (SBB) digital media players. I had no idea what a set-back box is until I looked it up.

Turns out it’s a slim embedded “pizza box” computer 310mm x 219mm x 32mm (12.2in x 8.6in x 1.3in) that’s inserted into the back (“set-back”) of a Samsung Large Format Display (LFD). These industrial-grade LFDs range in size from 32in to 82in and are used in digital signage applications.

Samsung LFDs (large format displays) use AMD R-Series APUs for flexible display features, like sending content to multiple displays via a network. (Courtesy: Samsung.)

Samsung LFDs (large format displays) use AMD R-Series APUs for flexible display features, like sending content to multiple displays via a network. (Courtesy: Samsung.)

What makes them so compelling is the reason they chose AMD’s R-Series APU. The SBB is a complete networked PC, alleviating the need for a separate box; they’re remotely controlled by Samsung’s MagicInfo software that allows up to 192 displays to be linked with same- or stitched-display information.

That is, one can build a video wall where the image is split across the displays—relying on AMD’s EyeFinity graphics feature—or content can be streamed across networked displays depending upon the retailer’s desired effect. Key to Samsung’s selling differentiation is remote management, RS232 control, and network-based self-diagnostics and active alert notification of problems.

Samsung is using the RX-425BB APU with integrated AMD Radeon R6 GPU. Per the datasheet, this version has a 35W TDP, 4 x86 cores and 6 GPU cores @ 654 MHz, is based on AMD’s latest “Steamroller” 64-bit CPU and Embedded Radeon E8860 discrete GPU. Each R-Series APU can drive four 3D, 4K, or HD displays (up to 4096 x 2160 pixels) while running DirectX 11.1, OpenGL 2.4 and AMD’s Mantle gaming SDK.

As neat as all of this is—it’s a super high-end embedded LAN-party “gaming” PC system, afterall—it’s the support for the latest HSA Foundation specs that makes the R-Series (and companion G-Series SOC) equally compelling for deeply embedded applications.  HSA allows mixed CPU and GPU computation which is especially useful in industrial control with its combination of general purpose, machine control, and display requirements.

GE Chooses AMD SOC for SFF

The second design win for AMD was back in February and it wasn’t broadcast widely: I stumbled across it while working on a sponsored piece for GE Intelligent Platforms (Disclosure: GE-IP is a sponsor of this blog.)

The AMD G-Series is now a monolithic, single-chip SOC that combines x86 CPU and Radeon graphics. (Courtesy: GE; YouTube.)

The AMD G-Series is now a monolithic, single-chip SOC that combines x86 CPU and Radeon graphics. (Courtesy: GE; YouTube.)

Used in a rugged, COM Express industrial controller, the AMD G-Series SOC met GE’s needs for low power and all-in-one processing, said Tommy Swigart, Global Product Manager at GE Intelligent Platforms. The “Jaguar” core in the SOC can sip as little as 5W TDP, yet still offers 3x PCIe, 2x GigE, 4x serial, plus HD audio and video, 10 USB (including 2x USB 3.0) and 2 SATA interfaces. What a Swiss Army knife of capability it is.

GE chose AMD’s G-Series APU for a rugged COM Express module for use in GE’s Industrial Internet. (Courtesy: GE Intelligent Platforms, YouTube.)

GE chose AMD’s G-Series APU for a rugged COM Express module for use in GE’s Industrial Internet. (Courtesy: GE Intelligent Platforms, YouTube.)

GE’s going all-in with the GE Industrial Internet, the company’s version of the IoT. Since the company is so diversified, GE can wring cost efficiencies for its customers by predicting aircraft maintenance, reducing energy in office HVAC installations, and interconnecting telemetry from locomotives to reduce track traffic and downtime. AMD’s G-Series APU brings computation, graphics, and bundles of I/O in a single-chip SOC—ideal for use in GE’s rugged SFF.

GE’s Industrial Internet runs on AMD’s G-Series APU. (Courtesy: GE; YouTube.)

GE’s Industrial Internet runs on AMD’s G-Series APU. (Courtesy: GE; YouTube.)

 

What’s the Nucleus of Mentor’s Push into Industrial Automation?

Mentor’s once nearly-orphaned Nucleus RT forms the foundation of a darned impressive software suite for controlling meat packing or nuclear power plants.

GlassesEveryone appreciates an underdog—the pale, wimpy kid with glasses and brown polyester sweater who gets routinely beaten up by the popular boys—but sticks it out day after day and eventually grows up to create a tech start-up everyone loves. (Part of this story is my personal history; I’ll let you guess which part.)

So it is with Mentor’s Nucleus RTOS, which the company announced forms the basis for the recent initiative into Industrial Automation (I.A.). Announced this week at the ARC Industry Forum in Orlando is Mentor’s “Embedded Solution for Industrial Automation” (Figure 1).  A cynic might look at this figure as a collection of existing Mentor products…slightly rearranged to make a compelling argument for a “solution” in the I.A. space.  That skinny kid Nucleus is right there, listed on the diagram. Oh, how many times have I asked Mentor why they keep Nucleus around only to get beaten up by the big RTOS kids!

Figure 1: Mentor’s Industrial Automation Solution for embedded, IoT-enabled systems relies on the Nucleus RTOS, including a secure hypervisor and enhanced security infrastructure.

Figure 1: Mentor’s Industrial Automation Solution for embedded, IoT-enabled systems relies on the Nucleus RTOS, including a secure hypervisor and enhanced security infrastructure. 

After all, you’ll recognize Mentor’s Embedded Linux, the Nucleus RTOS I just mentioned, and the company’s Sourcery debug/analyzer/IDE product suite. All of these have been around for a while, although Nucleus is the grown-up kid in this bunch. (Pop quiz: True or False…Did all three of these products came from Mentor acquisitions? Bonus question: From what company(ies)?)

Into this mix, Mentor is adding new security tools from our friends at Icon Labs, plus hooks to a hot new automation GUI/HMI called Qt. (Full disclosure: Icon Labs founder Alan Grau is one of our security bloggers; however, we were taken by surprise at this recent Mentor announcement!)

Industry 4.0: I.A. meets IoT

According to Mentor’s Director of Product Management for Runtime Solutions, Warren Kurisu (whose last name is pronounced just like my first name in Japanese: Ku-ri-su), I.A. is gaining traction, big time. There’s a term for it: “Industry 4.0”. The large industrial automation vendors—like GE, Siemens, Schneider Electric, and others—have long been collecting factory data and feeding it into the enterprise, seeking to reduce costs, increase efficiency, and tie systems into the supply chain. Today, we call this concept the Internet of Things (IoT) and Industry 4.0 is basically the promise of interoperability between currently bespoke (and proprietary) I.A. systems with smart, connected IoT devices plus a layer of cyber security thrown in.

Mentor’s Kurisu points out that what’s changed is not only the kinds of devices that will connect into I.A. systems, but how they’ll connect in more ways than via serial SCADA or FieldBus links. Industrial automation will soon include all the IoT pipes we’re reading about: Wi-Fi, Bluetooth LE, various mesh topologies, Ethernet, cellular—basically whatever works and is secure.

The Skinny Kid Prevails

Herein lies the secret of Mentor’s Industrial Automation Solution. It just so happens the company has most of what you’d need to connect legacy I.A. systems to the IoT, plus add new kinds of smart embedded sensors into the mix. What’s driving the whole market is cost. According to a recent ARC survey, reduced downtime, improved process performance, reduced  machine lifecycle costs—all of these, and more, are leading I.A. customers and vendors to upgrade their factories and systems.

Additionally, says Mentor’s Kurisu, having the ability to consolidate multiple pieces of equipment, reduce power, improve safety, and add more local, operator-friendly graphics are criteria for investing in new equipment, sensors, and systems.

Mentor brings something to the party in each of these areas:

- machine or system convergence, either by improved system performance or reduced footprint

- capabilities and differentiation, allowing I.A. vendors to create systems different from “the other guys”

- faster time-to-money, done through increased productivity, system design and debug, or anything to reduce the I.A. vendor’s and their customer’s efforts.

Graphic - Industrial Automation Flow

Figure 2: Industrial automation a la Mentor. The embedded pieces rely on Nucleus RTOS, or variations thereof. New Qt software for automation GUI’s plus security gateways from Icon Labs bring security and IoT into legacy I.A. installations.

Figure 2 sums up the Mentor value proposition, but notice how most of the non-enterprise blocks in the diagram are built upon the Nucleus RTOS.

Nucleus, for example, has achieved safety certification by TÜV SÜD complete with artifacts (called Nucleus SafetyCert). Mentor’s Embedded Hypervisor—a foundational component of some versions of Nucleus—can be used to create a secure partitioned environment for either multicore or multiple processors (heterogeneous or homogeneous), in which to run multiple operating systems which won’t cross-pollute in the event of a virus or other event.

New to the Mentor offering is an industry-standard Qt GUI running on Linux, or Qt optimized for embedded instantiations running on—wait for it—Nucleus RTOS. Memory and other performance optimizations reduce the footprint, boot faster, and there are versions now for popular IoT processors such as ARM’s Cortex-Mx cores.

Playground Victory: The Take-away

So if the next step in Industrial Automation is Industry 4.0—the rapid build-out of industrial systems reducing cost, adding IoT capabilities with secure interoperability—then Mentor has a pretty compelling offering. That consolidation and emphasis on low power I mentioned above can be had for free via capabilities already build into Nucleus.

For example, embedded systems based on Nucleus can intelligently turn off I/O and displays and even rapidly drive multicore processors into their deepest sleep modes. One example explained to me by Mentor’s Kurisu showed an ARM-based big.LITTLE system that ramped performance when needed but kept the power to a minimum. This is possible, in part, by Mentor’s power-aware drivers for an entire embedded I.A. system under the control of Nucleus.

And  in the happy ending we all hope for, it looks like the maybe-forgotten Nucleus RTOS—so often ignored by editors like me writing glowingly about Wind River’s VxWorks or Green Hill’s INTEGRITY—well, maybe Nucleus has grown up.  It’s the RTOS ready to run the factory of the future. Perhaps your electricity is right now generated under the control of the nerdy little RTOS that made it big.