Design Resources: USB 3.1 and Type-C

By: Chris A. Ciufo, Editor, Embedded Systems Engineering

An up-to-date quick reference list for engineers designing with Type-C.

USB 3.1 and its new Type-C connector are likely in your design near-future. USB 3.1 and the Type-C connector run at up to 10 Gbps, and Type-C is the USB-IF’s “does everything” connector that can be inserted either way (and never is upside down). The Type-C connector also delivers USB 3.1 speeds plus other gigabit protocols simultaneously, including DisplayPort, HDMI, Thunderbolt, PCI Express and more.

Also new or updated are the Battery Charging (BC) and Power Delivery (PD) specifications that provide up to 100W of charge capability in an effort to eliminate the need for a drawer full of incompatible wall warts.

If you’ve got USB 3.1 “SuperSpeed+” or the Type-C connector in your future, here’s a recent list of design resources, articles and websites that can help get you up to speed.

Start Here: The USB Interface Forum governs all of these specs, with lots of input from industry partners like Intel and Microsoft. USB 3.1 (it’s actually Gen 2), Type-C, and PD information is available via the USB-IF and it’s the best place to go for the actual details (note the hotlinks). Even if you don’t read them now, you know you’re going to need to read them eventually.

“Developer Days” The USB-IF presented this two-day seminar in Taipei last November 2015. I’ve recently discovered the treasure trove of preso’s located here (Figure 1). The “USB Type-C Specification Overview” is the most comprehensive I’ve seen lately.

Figure 1: USB-IF held a “Developer Days” forum in Taipei November 2015. These PPT’s are a great place to start your USB 3.1/Type-C education. (Image courtesy: USB-IF.org.)

Figure 1: USB-IF held a “Developer Days” forum in Taipei November 2015. These PPT’s are a great place to start your USB 3.1/Type-C education. (Image courtesy: USB-IF.org.)

What is Type-C? Another decent 1,000-foot view is my first article on Type-C: “Top 3 Essential Technologies for Ultra-mobile, Portable Embedded Systems.” Although the article covers other technologies, it compares Type-C against the other USB connectors and introduces designers to the USB-IF’s Battery Charging (BC) and Power Delivery (PD) specifications.

What is USB? To go further back to basics, “3 Things You Need to Know about USB Switches” starts at USB 1.1 and brings designers up to USB 3.0 SuperSpeed (5 Gbps). While the article is about switches, it also reminds readers that at USB 3.0 (and 3.1) speeds, signal integrity can’t be ignored.

USB Plus What Else? The article “USB Type-C is Coming…” overlays the aforementioned information with Type-C’s sideband capabilities that can transmit HDMI, DVI, Thunderbolt and more. Here, the emphasis is on pins, lines, and signal integrity considerations.

More Power, Scotty! Type-C’s 100W Power Delivery sources energy in either direction, depending upon the enumeration sequence between host and target. Components are needed to handle this logic, and the best source of info is from the IC and IP companies. A recent Q&A we did with IP provider Synopsys “Power Where It’s Needed…” goes behind the scenes a bit, while TI’s E2E Community has a running commentary on all things PD. The latter is a must-visit stop for embedded designers.

Finally, active cables are the future as Type-C interfaces to all manner of legacy interfaces (including USB 2.0/3.0). At last year’s IDF 2015, Cypress showed off dongles that converted between specs. Since then, the company has taken the lead in this emerging area and they’re the first place to go to learn about conversions and dongles (Figure 2).

Figure 2: In the Cypress booth at IDF 2015, the company and its partners showed off active cables and dongles. Here, Type-C (white) converts to Ethernet, HDMI, VGA, and one more I don’t recognize. (Photo by Chris A. Ciufo, 2015.)

Figure 2: In the Cypress booth at IDF 2015, the company and its partners showed off active cables and dongles. Here, Type-C (white) converts to Ethernet, HDMI, VGA, and one more I don’t recognize. (Photo by Chris A. Ciufo, 2015.)

Evolving Future: Although USB 3.1 and the Type-C connector are solid and not changing much, IC companies are introducing more highly integrated solutions for the BC, PD and USB 3.1 specifications plus sideband logic. For example, Intel’s Thunderbolt 3 uses Type-C and runs up to 40 Gbps, suggesting that Type-C has substantial headroom and more change is coming. My point: expect to keep your USB 3.1 and Type-C education up-to-date.

SMARC: ARM’d for a Power Play

ARM is migrating into the embedded board market, at the expense of x86 designs.

ARM is migrating into the embedded board market, at the expense of x86 designs.

In the world of multicore, it’s hard to get more cores than the quads now shipping in the latest smartphones, most of which are based upon ARM. But what about the board-level embedded market that I follow more closely?

You know it’s a foregone conclusion that ARM’s going to win the low power wars here too when even the x86 PC/104 vendors start musing about the need for ARM roadmaps.

 

WinSystems VP Bob Burckle spins a PC/104 board. The company is considering adding ARM processors to its predominantly x86-based boards.

WinSystems VP Bob Burckle spins a PC/104 board. The company is considering adding ARM processors to its predominantly x86-based boards.

In my discussion with WinSystems–a company that helps drive usually Intel-focused x86 trade consortia–Bob Burckle ponders an open standard form factor for ARM-based single board computers.  .

I’ve come to learn that ADLINK, Congatec, Kontron and others have pushed the very concept of ARM-based SBCs through the Standardization Group for Embedded Technologies (SGET) in a computer-on-module (COM) standard they’re calling Smart Mobility ARChitecture SMARC version 1.0.

Smart Mobility Architecture (SMARC) is a COM processor module ideally suited for ARM processors.

Smart Mobility Architecture (SMARC) is a COM processor module ideally suited for ARM processors. (Courtesy: Standardization Group for Embedded Technologies, SGET.org.)

It comes in 82mm x 50mm and 82mm x 80mm flavors, and Kontron is already implementing it for aircraft passenger In-Flight Entertainment systems.Figure 2 Kontron IFE plane cut-away

Look for ARM processors on PC/104, VME, COM Express…and SMARC boards soon. Choices will be from Texas Instruments, Atmel, Qualcomm, NVIDIA, Xilinx, and even AMD (which licensed the ARM for security engines in its APUs).

Kontron SMARC-sAT30 is a low profile platform based SMARC specification and integrates the 1.2 GHz NVIDIA Tegra 3 quad-core ARM processor (Cortex A9).

Kontron SMARC-sAT30 is a low profile platform based SMARC specification and integrates the 1.2 GHz NVIDIA Tegra 3 quad-core ARM processor (Cortex A9).

 

Intel Gets Smart with Smartphones

The 15 year anniversary of Intel’s Developers Forum kicked off with a somewhat predictable keynote by Dadi Perlmutter, EVP/GM Intel Architecture Group (Figure 1). We’re so used to Intel hitting it out of the park that the astounding messages bordered on ho-hum: reminding the audience of the pervasiveness of mobile computing; the morphing of the (not-yet-successful) Ultrabook segment into tablets, slates, and convertible variants; Windows8 and touch, gesture, and voice computing; next year’s Haswell 22nm microarchitecture; and a brief mention of future Atom variants. What is 100 percent certain is that Intel’s server (Xeon), desktop and laptop (3rd and soon 4th generation Core) processors will be amazing technology machines that are better than anything available today. And you’ll want one just as soon as they begin shipping in Q12013 because they’ll be cool. Literally.

Figure 1: Intel’s Dadi Perlmutter, EVP/GM Intel Architecture Group opens Day 1 of IDF 2012.

But what was most interesting is what Mr. Perlmutter didn’t say that the whole audience wanted to hear: What’s Intel’s roadmap in low-power, portable devices like smartphones and tablets? He offered only that the “First Wave” of Intel Inside smartphones is now available (Figure 2), with more on the way.

Turns out Intel is like an iceberg with only a bit showing above the waterline. The company merged the Core and Atom design teams this year, emphasizing both the need to focus on low power and SoC solutions, and to solidify the Haswell architecture’s “roadmap-ability” to scale up to server-class performance, while down to low-leakage, high-K power-sipping sleep modes. Five cell phone wins have been announced, all based upon the SoC Atom Z2460 1.6 GHz Medfield platform (Saltwell core): Lenovo, ZTE, Megafon, LAVA and Orange. They all run Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich – one revision behind the latest Jelly Bean – except for the Lava which runs 2.3. According to an Intel spokesperson, all are loosely based upon the company’s Smartphone Reference Design , but the Lava most closely resembles the original Intel specs.

Figure 2: Intel announced five smartphone wins at IDF, all based upon the Medfield Atom SoC and Saltwell core.

The Lava XOLO X900, sold in India, uses the Z2460 with Hyper-threading, has 16 GB of NV storage and 1 GB of RAM, and drives a 4.03-inch screen at 1024 x 600 with Intel’s 400 MHz Media Graphics Accelerator running OpenGL ES 2.0 with OpenVG 1.1 support. Its 1460 mAh battery is on the small side but similar to the iPhone 4s (allegedly 1432 mAh), but “should last 6-8 hours”. The China-destined Lenovo, on the other hand uses the same Atom SoC and graphics chip, but the 4.5-inch screen displays 720p content. The phone uses a 1900 mAh battery.

Figure 3: Who knew Intel made modems? The family – available in multiple form factors – originally came from the 2010 Infineon Wireless acquisition.

The other Intel surprise was their wireless modem family (Figure 3), spawned by the 2010 acquisition of Infineon’s wireless group. The company offers modem ICs, dongles, and cores for integration into their own (future) SoCs. The XMM family has a variety of flavors; all five of the smartphones displayed at IDF use Intel’s XMM 6260 HSPA+ 21 Mbits/s down/5.8 Mbit/s up modem. Designed for 2G/3G networks, multimode “Penta-band” support works with multiple worldwide standards: GSM, GPRS, and EDGE (850/900/1800/1900); and HSPA (850/900/1700/1900/2100). These are mixed signal solutions, combining digital and analog baseband in what Intel calls X-GOLD. No small technical feat.

Intel also has a roadmap strategy for “feature phones” (those candy bar phones popularized by Nokia) for the huge portion of the non-connected world that sees no need for a smartphone. Atom SoCs and modems are available for this slice of the mobile market, too.

So the part of the iceberg floating below the water that is publicly visible – Medfield SoCs and mixed signal 3G modems – is hugely impressive and clearly shows Intel’s commitment to low power mobile devices. And these are only the “First Wave”. Clearly Intel knows how to integrate smartphone peripherals, perform baseband signal processing, accelerate and decode/transcode HD graphics, and make a pretty decent low-power smartphone. With Intel writing the Intel Architecture BSP and native code on Android for Google (one of last year’s IDF announcements), the company is well positioned to smartly get into the smartphone game. The Haswell microarchitecture should ratchet down power by 20 times at the system level, said Permutter. We’re anxious to see it applied to the Atom roadmap in the Silvermont microarchitecture.

It’s about time.