Quiz question: I’m an embedded system, but I’m not a smartphone. What am I?

In the embedded market, there are smartphones, automotive, consumer….and everything else. I’ve figured out why AMD’s G-Series SoCs fit perfectly into the “everything else”.

amd-embedded-solutions-g-series-logo-100xSince late 2013 AMD has been talking about their G-Series of Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) x86 devices that mix an Intel-compatible CPU with a discrete-class GPU and a whole pile of peripherals like USB, serial, VGA/DVI/HDMI and even ECC memory. The devices sounded pretty nifty—in either SoC flavor (“Steppe Eagle”) or without the GPU (“Crowned Eagle”). But it was a head-scratcher where they would fit. After-all, we’ve been conditioned by the smartphone market to think that any processor “SoC” that didn’t contain an ARM core wasn’t an SoC.

AMD’s Stephen Turnbull, Director of Marketing, Thin Client markets.

AMD’s Stephen Turnbull, Director of Marketing, Thin Client markets.

Yes, ARM dominates the smartphone market; no surprise there.

But there are plenty of other professional embedded markets that need CPU/GPU/peripherals where the value proposition is “Performance per dollar per Watt,” says AMD’s Stephen Turnbull, Director of Marketing, Thin Clients. In fact, AMD isn’t even targeting the smartphone market, according to General Manager Scott Aylor in his many presentations to analysts and the financial community.

AMD instead targets systems that need “visual compute”: which is any business-class embedded system that mixes computation with single- or multi-display capabilities at a “value price”. What this really means is: x86-class processing—and all the goodness associated with the Intel ecosystem—plus one or more LCDs. Even better if those LCDs are high-def, need 3D graphics or other fancy rendering, and if there’s industry-standard software being run such as OpenCL, OpenGL, or DirectX. AMD G-Series SoCs run from 6W up to 25W; the low end of this range is considered very power thrifty.

What AMD’s G-Series does best is cram an entire desktop motherboard and peripheral I/O, plus graphics card onto a single 28nm geometry SoC. Who needs this? Digital signs—where up to four LCDs make up the whole image—thin clients, casino gaming, avionics displays, point-of-sale terminals, network-attached-storage, security appliances, and oh so much more.

G-Series SoC on the top with peripheral IC for I/O on the bottom.

G-Series SoC on the top with peripheral IC for I/O on the bottom.

According to AMD’s Turnbull, the market for thin client computers is growing at 6 to 8 percent CAGR (per IDC), and “AMD commands over 50 percent share of market in thin clients.” Recent design wins with Samsung, HP and Fujitsu validate that using a G-Series SoC in the local box provides more-than-ample horsepower for data movement, encryption/decryption of central server data, and even local on-the-fly video encode/decode for Skype or multimedia streaming.

Typical use cases include government offices where all data is server-based, bank branch offices, and “even classroom learning environments, where learning labs standardize content, monitor students and centralize control of the STEM experience,” says AMD’s Turnbull.

Samsung LFDs (large format displays) use AMD R-Series APUs for flexible display features, like sending content to multiple displays via a network. (Courtesy: Samsung.)

Samsung LFDs (large format displays) use AMD APUs for flexible display features, like sending content to multiple displays via a network. (Courtesy: Samsung.)

But what about other x86 processors in these spaces? I’m thinking about various SKUs from Intel such as their recent Celeron and Pentium M offerings (which are legacy names but based on modern versions of Ivy Bridge and Haswell architectures) and various Atom flavors in both dual- and quad-core colors. According to AMD’s  published literature, G-Series SoC’s outperform dual-core Atoms by 2x (multi-display) or 3x (overall performance) running industry-standard benchmarks for standard and graphics computation.

And then there’s that on-board GPU. If AMD’s Jaguar-based CPU core isn’t enough muscle, the system can load-balance (in performance and power) to move algorithm-heavy loads to the GPU for General Purpose GPU (GPGPU) number crunching. This is the basis for AMD’s efforts to bring the Heterogeneous System Architecture (HSA) spec to the world. Even companies like TI and ARM have jumped onto this one for their own heterogeneous processors.

G-Series: more software than hardware.

G-Series: more software than hardware.

In a nutshell, after two years of reading about (and writing about) AMD’s G-Series SoCs, I’m beginning to “get religion” that the market isn’t all about smartphone processors. Countless business-class embedded systems need Intel-compatible processing, multiple high-res displays, lots of I/O, myriad industry-standard software specs…and all for a price/Watt that doesn’t break the bank.

So the answer to the question posed in the title above is simply this: I’m a visually-oriented embedded system. And I’m everywhere.

This blog was sponsored by AMD.

 

 

AMD’s “Beefy” APUs Bulk Up Thin Clients for HP, Samsung

There are times when a tablet is too light, and a full desktop too much. The answer? A thin client PC powered by an AMD APU.

Note: this blog is sponsored by AMD.

A desire to remotely access my Mac and Windows machines from somewhere else got me thinking about thin client architectures. A thin “client” machine has sufficient processing for local storage and display—plus keyboard, mouse and other I/O—and is remotely connected to a more beefy “host” elsewhere. The host may be in the cloud or merely somewhere else on a LAN, sometimes intentionally inaccessible for security reasons.

Thin client architectures—or just “thin clients”—find utility in call centers, kiosks, hospitals, “smart” monitors and TVs, military command posts and other multi-user, virtualized installations. At times they’ve been characterized as low performance or limited in functionality, but that’s changing quickly.

They’re getting additional processing and graphics capability thanks to AMD’s G-Series and A-Series Accelerated Processing Units (APUs). By some analysts, AMD is number one in thin clients and the company keeps winning designs with its highly integrated x86 plus Radeon graphics SoCs: most recently with HP and Samsung.

HP’s t420 and mt245 Thin Clients

HP’s ENERGY STAR certified t420 is a fanless thin client for call centers, Desktop-as-a-service and remote kiosk environments (Figure 1). Intended to mount on the back of a monitor such as the company’s ProDisplays (like you see at the doctor’s office), the unit runs HP’s ThinPro 32 or Smart Zero Core 32 operating system, has either 802.11n Wi-Fi or Gigabit Ethernet, 8 GB of Flash and 2 GB of DDR3L SDRAM.

Figure 1: HP’s t420 thin client is meant for call centers and kiosks, mounted to a smart LCD monitor. (Courtesy: HP.)

Figure 1: HP’s t420 thin client is meant for call centers and kiosks, mounted to a smart LCD monitor. (Courtesy: HP.)

USB ports for keyboard and mouse supplement the t420’s dual display capability (DVI-D  and VGA)—made possible by AMD’s dual-core GX-209JA running at 1 GHz.

Says AMD’s Scott Aylor, corporate vice president and general manager, AMD Embedded Solutions: “The AMD Embedded G-Series SoC couples high performance compute and graphics capability in a highly integrated low power design. We are excited to see innovative solutions like the HP t420 leverage our unique technologies to serve a broad range of markets which require the security, reliability and low total cost of ownership offered by thin clients.”

The whole HP thin client consumes a mere 45W and according to StorageReview.com, will retail for $239.

Along the lines of a lightweight mobile experience, HP has also chosen AMD for their mt245 Mobile Thin Client (Figure 2). The thin client “cloud computer” resembles a 14-inch (1366 x 768 resolution) laptop with up to 4GB of SDRAM and a 16 GB SSD, the unit runs Windows Embedded Standard 7P 64 on AMD’s quad core A6-6310 APU with Radeon R4 GPU. There are three USB ports, 1 VGA and 1 HDMI, plus Ethernet and optional Wi-Fi.

Figure 2: HP’s mt245 is a thin client mobile machine, targeting healthcare, education, and more. (Courtesy: HP.)

Figure 2: HP’s mt245 is a thin client mobile machine, targeting healthcare, education, and more. (Courtesy: HP.)

Like the t420, the mt245 consumes a mere 45W and is intended for employee mobility but is configured for a thin client environment. AMD’s director of thin client product management, Stephen Turnbull says the mt245 targets “a whole range of markets, including education and healthcare.”

At the core of this machine, pun intended, is the Radeon GPU that provides heavy-lifting graphics performance. The mt245 can not only take advantage of virtualized cloud computing, but has local moxie to perform graphics-intensive applications like 3D rendering. Healthcare workers might, for example, examine ultrasound images. Factory technicians could pull up assembly drawings, then rotate them in CAD-like software applications.

Samsung Cloud Displays

An important part of Samsung’s displays business involves “smart” displays, monitors and televisions. Connected to the cloud or operating autonomously as a panel PC, many Samsung displays need local processing such as that provided by AMD’s APUs.

Samsung’s recently announced (June 17, 2015) 21.5-inch TC222W and 23.6-inch TC242W also use AMD G-Series devices in thin client architectures. The dual core 2.2 GHz GX222 with Radeon HD6290 powers both displays at 1920 x 1080 (HD) and provides six USB ports, Ethernet, and runs Windows Embedded 7 out of 4GB of RAM and 32 GB of SSD.

Figure 3: Samsung’s Cloud Displays also rely on AMD G-Series APUs.

Figure 3: Samsung’s Cloud Displays also rely on AMD G-Series APUs.

Said Seog-Gi Kim, senior vice president, Visual Display Business, Samsung Electronics, “Samsung’s powerful Windows Thin Client Cloud displays combine professional, ergonomic design with advanced thin-client technology.” The displays rely on the company’s Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) through a centrally managed data center that increases data security and control (Figure 3). Applications include education, business, healthcare, hospitality or any environment that requires virtualized security with excellent local processing and graphics.

Key to the design wins is the performance density of the G-Series APUs, coupled with legacy x86 software interoperability. The APUs–for both HP and Samsung–add more beef to thin clients.

 

Move Over Arduino, AMD and GizmoSphere Have a “Jump” On You with Graphics

The UK’s National Videogame Arcade relies on CPU, graphics, I/O and openness to power interactive exhibits.

Editor’s note: This blog is sponsored by AMD.

When I was a kid I was constantly fascinated with how things worked. What happens when I stick this screwdriver in the wall socket? (Really.) How come the dinner plate falls down and not up?

Humans have to try things for ourselves in order to fully understand them; this sparks our creativity and for many of us becomes a life calling.

Attempting to catalyze visitors’ curiosity, the UK’s National Videogame Arcade (NVA) opened in March 2015 with the sole intention of getting children and adults interested in videogames through the use of interactive exhibits, most of which are hands-on. The hope is that young people will first be stimulated by the games, and secondly that they someday unleash their creativity on the videogame and tech industries.

The UK's National Videogame Arcade promotes gaming through hands-on exhibits powered by GizmoSphere embedded hardware.

The UK’s National Videogame Arcade promotes gaming through hands-on exhibits powered by GizmoSphere embedded hardware.

 Might As Well “Jump!”

The NVA is located in a corner building with lots of curbside windows—imagine a fancy New York City department store but without the mannequins in the street-side windows. Spread across five floors and a total of 33,000 square feet, the place is a cooperative effort between GameCity (a nice bunch of gamers), the Nottingham City Council, and local Nottingham Trent University.

The goal of pulling in 60,000 visitors a year is partly achieved by the NVA’s signature exhibit “Jump!” that allows visitors to experience gravity (without the plate) and how it affects videogame characters like those in Donkey Kong or Angry Birds. Visitors actually get to jump on the Jump-o-tron, a physics-based sensor that’s controlled by GizmoSphere’s Gizmo 2 development board.

The Jumpotron uses AMD's G-Series SoC combining an x86 and Radeon GPU.

The Jumpotron uses AMD’s G-Series SoC combining an x86 and Radeon GPU.

The heart of Gizmo 2 is AMD’s G-Series APU, combining a 64-bit x86 CPU and Radeon graphics processor. Gizmo 2 is the latest creation from the GizmoSphere nonprofit open source community which seeks to “bring the power of a supercomputer and the I/O capabilities of a microcontroller to the x86 open source community,” according to www.gizmosphere.org.

The open source Gizmo 2 runs Windows and Linux, bridging PC games to the embedded world.

The open source Gizmo 2 runs Windows and Linux, bridging PC games to the embedded world.

Jump!” allows visitors to experience—and tweak—gravity while examining the effect upon on-screen characters. The combination requires extensive processing—up to 85 GFLOPS worth—plus video manipulation and display. What’s amazing is that “Jump!”, along with many other NVA exhibits, isn’t powered by rackmount servers but rather by the tiny 4 x 4 inch Gizmo 2 that supports Direct X 11.1, OpenGL 4.2x, and OpenCL 1.2. It also runs Windows and Linux.

AMD’s “G” Powers Gizmo 2

Gizmo 2 is a dense little package, sporting HDMI, Ethernet, PCIe, USB (2.0 and 3.0), plus myriad other A/V and I/O such as A/D/A—all of them essential for NVA exhibits like “Jump!” Says Ian Simons of the NVA, “Gizmo 2 is used in many of our games…and there are plans for even more games embedded into the building,” including furniture and even street-facing window displays.

Gizmo 2’s small size and support for open source software and hardware—plus the ability to develop on the gamer’s Unity engine—makes Gizmo 2 the preferred choice. Yet the market contains ample platforms from which to choose. Arduino comes to mind.

Gizmo 2's schematic.

Gizmo 2′s schematic. The x86 G-Series SoC is loaded with I/O.

Compared to Arduino, the AMD G Series SoC (GX-210HA) powering Gizmo 2 is orders of magnitude more powerful, plus it’s x86 based and running at 1.0GHz (the integral GPU runs at 300 MHz). This makes the world’s cache of Intel-oriented, Windows-based software and drivers available to Gizmo 2—including some server-side programs. “NVA can create projects with Gizmo 2, including 3D graphics and full motion video, with plenty of horsepower,” says Simons. He’s referring to some big projects already installed at the NVA, plus others in the planning stages.

“One of things we’d like to do,” Simons says, “is continue to integrate Gizmo 2 into more of the building to create additional interactive exhibits and displays.” The small size of Gizmo 2, plus the wickedly awesome performance/graphics rendering/size/Watt of the AMD G-Series APU, allows Gizmo 2 to be embedded all over the building.

See Me, Feel Me

With a nod to The Who’s (1) rock opera Tommy, the NVA building will soon have more Gizmo 2 modules wired into the infrastructure, mixing images and sound. There are at least three projects in the concept stage:

  • DMX addressable logic in the central stairway.  With exposed cables and beams, visitors would be able to control the audio, video, and possibly LED lighting of the stairwell area using a series of switches. The author wonders if voice or other tactile feedback would create all manner of immersive “psychedelic” A/V in the stairwell central hall.
  • Controllable audio zones in the rooftop garden. The NVA’s Yamaha-based sound system already includes 40 zones. Adding AMD G-Series horsepower to these zones would allow visitors to create individually customized light/sound shows, possibly around botanical themes. Has there ever been a Little Shop of Horrors videogame where the plants eat the gardener? I wonder.
  • Sidewalk animation that uses all those street-facing windows to animate the building, possibly changing the building’s façade (Star Trek cloak, anyone?) or even individually controlling games inside the building from outside (or presenting inside activities to the outside). Either way, all those windows, future LCDs, and reams of I/O will require lots more Gizmo 2 embedded boards.

The Gizmo 2 costs $199 and is available from several retailers such as Element14. With Gerber schematics and all the board-focused software open source, it’s no wonder this x86 embedded board is attractive to gamers. With AMD’s G-Series APU onboard, the all-in-one HDK/SDK is an ideal choice for embedded designs—and those future gamers playing with the Gizmo 2 at the UK’s NVA.

BTW: The Who harkened from London, not Nottingham.

New HSA Spec Legitimizes AMD’s CPU+GPU Approach

After nearly 3 years since the formation of the Heterogeneous System Architecture (HSA) Foundation, the consortium releases 1.0 version of the Architecture Spec, Programmer’s Reference Manual, Runtime Specification and a Conformance Plan.

Note: This blog is sponsored by AMD.

HSA banner

 

UPDATE 3/17/15: Added Imagination Technologies as one of the HSA founders. C2

No one doubts the wisdom of AMD’s Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) approach that combines x86 CPU with a Radeon graphic GPU. Afterall, one SoC does it all—makes CPU decisions and drives multiple screens, right?

True. Both AMD’s G-Series and the AMD R-Series do all that, and more. But that misses the point.

In laptops this is how one uses the APU, but in embedded applications—like the IoT of the future that’s increasingly relying on high performance embedded computing (HPEC) at the network’s edge—the GPU functions as a coprocessor. CPU + GPGPU (general purpose graphics processor unit) is a powerful combination of decision-making plus parallel/algorithm processing that does local, at-the-node processing, reducing the burden on the cloud. This, according to AMD, is how the IoT will reach tens of billions of units so quickly.

Trouble is, HPEC programming is difficult. Coding the GPU requires a “ninja programmer”, as quipped AMD’s VP of embedded Scott Aylor during his keynote at this year’s Embedded World Conference in Germany. (Video of the keynote is here.) Worse still, capitalizing on the CPU + GPGPU combination requires passing data between the two architectures which don’t share a unified memory architecture. (It’s not that AMD’s APU couldn’t be designed that way; rather, the processors require different memory architectures for maximum performance. In short: they’re different for a reason.)

AMD’s Scott Aylor giving keynote speech at Embedded World, 2015. His message: some IoT nodes demand high-performance heterogeneous computing at the edge.

AMD’s Scott Aylor giving keynote speech at Embedded World, 2015. His message: some IoT nodes demand high-performance heterogeneous computing at the edge.

AMD realized this limitation years ago and in 2012 catalyzed the HSA Foundation with several companies including ARM, Texas Instruments, Imagination Technology, MediaTek, Qualcomm, Samsung and others. The goal was to create a set of specifications that define heterogeneous hardware architectures but also create an HPEC programming paradigm for CPU, GPU, DSP and other compute elements. Collectively, the goal was to make designing, programming, and power optimizing easy for heterogeneous SoCs (Figure).

Heterogeneous systems architecture (HSA) specifications version 1.0 by the HSA Foundation, March 2015.

The HSA Foundation’s goals are realized by making the coder’s job easier using tools—such as an HSA version LLVM open source compiler—that integrates multiple cores’ ISAs. (Courtesy: HSA Foundation; all rights reserved.) Heterogeneous systems architecture (HSA) specifications version 1.0 by the HSA Foundation, March 2015.

After three years of work, the HSA Foundation just released their specifications at version 1.0:

  • HSA System Architecture Spec: defines H/W, OS requirements, memory model (important!), signaling paradigm, and fault handling.
  • Programmers Reference Guide: essentially a virtual ISA for parallel computing, defines an output format for HSA language compilers.
  • HSA Runtime Spec: is an application library for running HSA applications; defines INIT, user queues, memory management.

With HSA, the magic really does happen under the hood where the devil’s in the details. For example, the HSA version LLVM open source compiler creates a vendor-agnostic HSA intermediate language (HSAIL) that’s essentially a low-level VM. From there, “finalizers” compile into vendor-specific ISAs such as AMD or Qualcomm Snapdragon. It’s at this point that low-level libraries can be added for specific silicon implementations (such as VSIPL for vector math). This programming model uses vendor-specific tools but allows novice programmers to start in C++ but end up with optimized, performance-oriented, and low-power efficient code for the heterogeneous combination of CPU+GPU or DSP.

There are currently 43 companies involved with HSA, 16 universities, and three working groups (and they’re already working on version 1.1). Look at the participants, think of their market positions, and you’ll see they have a vested interest in making this a success.

In AMD’s case, as the only x86 and ARM + GPU APU supplier to the embedded market, the company sees even bigger successes as more embedded applications leverage heterogeneous parallel processing.

One example where HSA could be leveraged, said Phil Rogers, President of the HSA Foundation, is for multi-party video chatting. An HSA-compliant heterogeneous architecture would allow the processors to work in a single (virtual) memory pool and avoid the multiple data set copies—and processor churn—prevalent in current programming models.

With key industry players supporting HSA including AMD, ARM, Imagination Technologies, Samsung, Qualcomm, MediaTek and others, a lot of x86, ARM, and MIPS-based SoCs are likely to be compliant with the specification. That should kick off a bunch of interesting software development leading to a new wave of high performance applications.

Virtual, Immersive, Interactive: Performance Graphics and Processing for IoT Displays

Vending machines outside Walmart

Current-gen machines like these will give way to smart, IoT connected machines with 64-bit graphics and virtual reality-like customer interaction.

Not every IoT node contains a low-performance processor, sensor and slow comms link. Sure, there may be tens of billions of these, but estimates by IHS, Gartner, Cisco still infer the need for billions of smart IoT nodes with hefty processing needs. These intelligent IoT platforms are best left to 64-bit algorithm processors like AMD’s G-and R-Series of Accelerated Processing Units (APU). AMD’s claim to fame is 64-bit cores combined with on-board Radeon graphics processing units (GPU) and tons of I/O.

As an example, consider this year’s smart vending machine. It may dispense espresso or electronic toys, or maybe show the customer wearing virtual custom-fit clothing. Suppose the machine showed you–at that very moment–using or drinking the product in the machine you were just starting at seconds before.

Far fetched? Far from it. It’s real.

These machines require a multi-media, sensor fusion experience. Multiple iPad-like touch screens may present high-def product options while cameras track customers’ eye movements, facial expressions, and body language in three-space.

This “visual compute” platform will tailor the display information to best interact with the customer in an immersive, gesture-sort of experience. Fusing all these inputs, processing the data in real-time, and driving multiple displays is best handled by 64-bit APUs with closely-coupled CPU and GPU execution units, hardware acceleration, and support for standards like DirectX 11, HSA 1.0, OpenGL and OpenCL.

For heavy lifting in visual compute-intensive IoT platforms, keep an eye on AMD’s graphics-ready APUs.

If you are attending Embedded World February 24-26, be sure to check out the keynote Heterogeneous Computing for an Internet of Things World,” by Scott Aylor, Corporate VP and General Manager, AMD Embedded Solutions on Wednesday the 25th at 9:30.

This blog was sponsored by AMD.

AMD’s Single Chip Embedded SoC: Upward and to the Right

Monolithic AMD embedded G Series SoCs combine x86 multicore, Radeon graphics, and a Southbridge. It’s one-stop-shopping, and it’s a flood targeting Intel again.

AMD arrow logoThe little arrow-like “a” AMD logo once represented an “upward and to right” growth strategy, back in the 1980s as the company was striving for $1.0B and I worked there just out of university.

In 2013, AMD is focusing on the embedded market with a vengeance and it’s “upward and to the right” again. The stated target is for AMD to grow embedded revenues from 5% in Q3 2012 to 20% of the total by Q4 2013. Wow. I’m excited about the company’s prospects, though I know they’ve had decades of false starts or technology successes that were later to sold off in favor of their personal war with Intel for PC dominance. (Flash memories and Vantis? The first DSP telephone modem Am7910? Telecom line cards? Alchemy “StrongMIPS”? All gone.)

Know what? PCs are in the tank right now, embedded is the market, and AMD might just be better positioned than Intel. They’re certainly saying all the right things. Take this week’s DESIGN West announcement of the new embedded G Series “SoCs”. Two years ago AMD invented the term Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) as a differentiated x86 CPU with an ATI GPU.

An AMD Accelerated Processing Unit merges a multicore x86 CPU with a Radeon GPU.

An AMD Accelerated Processing Unit merges a multicore x86 CPU with a Radeon GPU.

This week’s news is how the APU mind-melds with all of the traditional x86 Southbridge I/O to become a System-on-Chip (SoC).

The AMD G Series “SoC” does more real estate slight-of-hand by eliminating the Southbridge to bring all peripherals on-board the APU.

The AMD G Series “SoC” does more real estate slight-of-hand by eliminating the Southbridge to bring all peripherals on-board the APU.

The G Series SoCs meld AMD’s latest 28 nm quad-core “Jaguar” with the ATI Radeon 8000 series GPU and claim a 113 percent CPU and 20 percent GPU performance jump. More importantly, the single-chip SoC concept reduces footprint by 33 percent by eliminating a whole IC. On-board peripherals are HDMI/DVI/LVDS/VGA, PCIe, USB 2.0/3.0, SATA 2.x/3.x, SPI, SD card reader interface, and more. You know, the kind of stuff you’d expect in an all-in-one.

Available in 2- and 4-core flavors, the G Series SoC saves up to 33% board real estate, and even drives dual displays and high-res.

Available in 2- and 4-core flavors, the G Series SoC saves up to 33% board real estate, and even drives dual displays and high-res.

AMD is clearly setting their sites on embedded, and Intel is once again in the crosshairs. The company claims a 3x (218 percent) overall performance advantage with the GX-415GA SKU (quad core, 1.5 GHz, 2 MB L2) over Intel’s Atom D525 running Sandra Engineering 2011 Dhrystone ALU, Sandra Engineering 2011 Whetstone iSSE3, and other benchmarks such as those from EEMBC. Although AMD’s talking trash about the Atom, they’re disclosing all of their benchmarks, the hardware they were run on, and the OS assumptions. (The only thing that maybe seems hinky to me is that the respective motherboards use 4 GB DRAM (AMD) versus 1 GB DRAM (Intel).)

AMD CPU performance graph 1

And then there’s the built-in ECC which targets critical applications such as military, medical, financial, and casino gaming. The single-chip SoC is also designed ground-up to run -40 to +85C (operation) and will fit the bill in many rugged, defense, and medical applications requiring really good horsepower and graphics performance. Fan-less designs are the sweet spot with a 9W to 25W TDP, with all I/O’s blazing. Your mileage may vary, and AMD claims a much-better-than-Intel Performance-per-Watt number of 19 vs 9 as shown below. There are more family members to follow, some with sub 9W power consumption. Remember, that’s for CPU+GPU+Peripherals combined. Again, read the fine print.

AMD performance per Watt 1

I’m pretty enthused about AMD’s re-entry into the embedded market. Will Intel counter with something similar? Maybe not, but their own ultra low power Atom-based SoCs are winning smartphone designs left and right and have plenty of horsepower to run MPEG4 decode, DRM, and dual screen displays a la Apple’s AirPlay. So it’s game on, boys and girls.

The AMD vs Intel battle has always been good for the entire industry as it has “lifted all boats”. Here’s to a flood of new devices in embedded.

 

 

Confused about all the different PC/104 and SUMIT-ISM specs? Then read this.

This is a short story of how ISA split apart the PC/104 industry. Here, all the hyperbole is distilled into a “Read this” primer that sorts out the various embedded board form factors.

I’ve written about the embedded boards industry for decades. At one point I even did some consulting for the PC/104 Consortium by recommending a focus on rugged and long-life applications and systems. But I can’t say I’m thoroughly familiar with all of the PC/104 specifications. There are just too darned many variations; who can keep them all straight?

Rest easy. Herein is a quick-and-dirty primer on all the specs, and how they compare. I’ve compiled this info courtesy of the PC/104 Consortium, the SFF-SIG, and friends from companies like WinSystems and Kontron.

PC/104 Consortium’s Specifications

I’m going to focus exclusively on PC/104-sized boards and ignore the related flavors like EPIC and EBX, but here’s how they look size-wise, compared to the original 90 x 96 mm (3.6 x 3.8 in) PC/104 board on the left:

A comparison of PC/104 board size to EPIC and EBX embedded boards.

A comparison of PC/104 board size to EPIC and EBX embedded boards.

PC/104 exclusively uses the ISA bus for stack-up and stack-down, whereas the other versions add or subtract PCI and PCI Express busses:

On a PC/104 board there are low-speed connections, all the way up to ISA, PCI, and PCI Express. This shows how the PC/104 Consortium's line up adds I/O and stacks.

On a PC/104 board there are low-speed connections, all the way up to ISA, PCI, and PCI Express. This shows how the PC/104 Consortium’s line up adds I/O and stacks.

In February 2013, the PC/104 Consortium ratified and made public the PC/104-Express and PCIe/104 versions shown on the right. PCIe/104 is their board-of-the-future and comes in Type 1 and Type 2 versions, depending upon the peripherals and feature set needed in the system. The brand new PCIe/104 has provisions to support PCI Express Gen 2 and Gen 3. The primary differences are shown in green. Type 2 would be used for the highest speed peripherals such as USB 3.0 or SATA; however, connector pin limitations forced PCIe x16 onto Type 1 instead of Type 2:

The new PCIe/104 comes in Type 1 and Type 2 versions, depending upon I/O requirements.

The new PCIe/104 comes in Type 1 and Type 2 versions, depending upon I/O requirements.

Note that the legacy ISA bus, and eventually the PCI bus (in PCIe/104) are dropped as the industry moves to PCI Express. These older ISA and PCI busses are supported by adding bridge cards to the middle of a PC104xxx stack as shown:

Adding ISA or PCI to the newer PC/104 stacks requires a bridge module in the sandwich.

Adding ISA or PCI to the newer PC/104 stacks requires a bridge module in the sandwich.

More information on stack-ups and how the PCI Express bus gets “lane shifted” as the stack grows can be found in the specifications for PCI/104-Express and PCIe/104.

Small-Form Factor SIG’s Specifications (SFF-SIG)

The industry fragmented over how to support the legacy ISA bus, and vendors that believed ISA I/O boards would remain popular for many years formed the SFF-SIG around 2008. Their PC/104-sized board is the same 90 x 96 mm (3.6 x 3.8 in) size but is called “Industry Standard Module” (ISM) to avoid copyright and trademark infringement issues. Instead, their specifications define Standard Unified Modular Interconnect Technology ISM boards (SUMIT-ISM) and the specification can be found here. An example of a larger EBX baseboard with SUMIT and PC/104 ISA connectors is shown below:

Caption: This is an EBX-sized baseboard that allows a SUMIT-ISM card to be stacked on it. The SUMIT-AB connectors are in the middle and the legacy PC/104 ISA bus connector is along the top edge. (Courtesy: WinSystems and TechBriefs.com .)

This is an EBX-sized baseboard that allows a SUMIT-ISM card to be stacked on it. The SUMIT-AB connectors are in the middle and the legacy PC/104 ISA bus connector is along the top edge. (Courtesy: WinSystems and TechBriefs.com .)

As for connectors and I/O on SUMIT-ISM boards, it uses the same Samtec Q2 double row, high speed 15.24 mm Q-strip connector system as does the PC/104 Consortium. The following table compares many of the common SUMIT-ISM I/O types (Column 1) to the PC/104 Consortium’s flavors, including the new Type 1 and Type 2 PCIe/104 just announced:

How PCI Express is implemented on SUMIT-ISM board and PCIe104 boards Type 1 and Type 2.

How PCI Express is implemented on SUMIT-ISM board and PCIe104 boards Type 1 and Type 2.

For additional explanation of how the ISA bus split the industry, read WinSystems’ article at TechBriefs.com .

Conclusions

It all comes down to a philosophical choice. If your design needs ISA and newer, contemporary processors, your choices are the original versions of PC/104 and SUMIT-ISM. When your system starts needing variations of PCI and PCI Express, you’ll need to examine how best to implement those busses in the stack-up: with or without bridge modules.  If you just want PCIe, then both SUMIT-ISM and the new PCIe/104 modules have you covered.